Volume 4, Issue 4, December 2019, Page: 90-97
Chemical and Mineral Bio-availability Composition of Indigenous Vegetable Sauces: Implication for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Amadi Joy Adaku Chibuzo, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria
Asinobi Chinagorom Onyemaechi, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria
Okeke Phenomena Ngozi, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria
Ndukwu Sylvia Ogechi, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria
Nwachukwu Chijioke Nnaemeka, Department of Food Science and Technology, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria
Edward Uzoamaka, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria
Received: Aug. 14, 2019;       Accepted: Sep. 27, 2019;       Published: Oct. 15, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijde.20190404.11      View  37      Downloads  17
Abstract
Chemical and mineral bioavailability composition of indigenous vegetable sauces: implication for type 2 diabetes mellitus was evaluated. Vegetables and ingredients for sauce preparation were purchased from Relief market Owerri, Imo State. The vegetables were used in preparation of okra sauce, African spinach sauce and lettuce sauce. It was oven-dried at 50°C for 14 hours. The sauces were analyzed for proximate, minerals, vitamin, antinutrient while mineral to antinutrient ratios was calculated using standard methods. Statistical analysis using Statistical Product for Service Solution (SPSS) was used to determine one way Analysis of variance (ANOVA) to separate the means while Turkey test model was used to test significant difference. P-value at 0.05 was considered significant. Significant difference was observed only in dietary fibre (p<0.05). Mineral composition showed significant (p<0.05) differences in African spinach sauce for sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, zinc and manganese and only highest in phosphorus for lettuce sauce. Tannin was significantly highest in lettuce sauce and African spinach sauce, for phytate and oxalate in African spinach sauce. All the minerals studied showed high bioavailability. Vitamin composition was significantly (p<0.05) different among the vegetable sauces in all the water soluble vitamin studied but was only significant (p<0.05) for vitamin D for all the fat soluble vitamins in okra sauce. Consumption of these vegetable sauces should be encouraged especially among the type 2 diabetic subjects.
Keywords
Vegetable Sauces, Indigenous, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Mineral Bioavailability
To cite this article
Amadi Joy Adaku Chibuzo, Asinobi Chinagorom Onyemaechi, Okeke Phenomena Ngozi, Ndukwu Sylvia Ogechi, Nwachukwu Chijioke Nnaemeka, Edward Uzoamaka, Chemical and Mineral Bio-availability Composition of Indigenous Vegetable Sauces: Implication for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, International Journal of Diabetes and Endocrinology. Vol. 4, No. 4, 2019, pp. 90-97. doi: 10.11648/j.ijde.20190404.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Vlad, I. and Pops, A. (2012). Epidemiology of diabetics Mellitus: A current review. Romanian Journal of Diabetics, Nutrition and Metabolism and Disorder; 19: 433.
[2]
El-Rabey, H. A., Alseeni, M. N. and Bakhashwami, A. (2017). The Antidiabetic activity of Nigeria savity and propolis on streptozotocin induced diabetics and diabetic nephropathy in male rats. Evidence Based Compliment Alternative Medicine; 54 (3): 96-45.
[3]
Al-Malta, A. C. and El-Rebey, H. A. (2015). Antidiabetic effect of low doses of moringa olifera lam seeds on streptozotocin induced diabetics and diabetic nephropathy in male rate biochemical. Research International; 38: 10-40.
[4]
Al-rani, N. (2012) oxidative stress, antioxidants and saliva: A Review. Oxidative stress disorder: 303.
[5]
Balarcumar, P. (2014). Implication of fundamental signaling Alteration in diabetes mellitus cardiovascular diseases. Indian Biochemistry and Biophysics; 51: 441-446.
[6]
Khandouzi, N., Shidfar, F., Rajah, A., Rahideh, T., Hosseni, P. and Taheri, M. (2015). The effects of ginger on fasting blood sugar, Hemoglobin Alc, Apolio protein B, Apolipo protein A-L and Malondialdehyde in Type 2 diabetic patients. Iran Journal Pharmacy Research, 14: 131-136.
[7]
Udenta, E, A., Ikemefuna C. Obizoba, I. C., and Oluwafemi O. Oguntibeju, O. O. (2014). Anti-Diabetic Effects of Nigerian Indigenous Plant Foods/Diets. In: Antioxidant-Antidiabetic Agents and Human Health. Intech Open Access book Publishers.
[8]
Nwamarah, J. U and Otitoju, G. T. O. (2014). Fruit and vegetable consumption pattern and health challenges of elderly (≥60years) staff in the University of Nigeria, Nsukka and Eungu campuses: a case study. Pakistian Journal of Nutrition; 13 (11): 626-630.
[9]
Banwat, W. E., Lar, D. A., Dabor, J., Audu, S. and Lass, S. (2012). Knowledge and intake of fruits and vegetable consumption among adult in an urban community in North Central Nigeria. Nigerian Health Journal; 12: 1-9.
[10]
Ashaye, O. A. (2010). Effect of processing methods on chemical and consumer acceptability of Kenaf and Corchorus vegetable. Journal of American science; 6 (2), 165-170.
[11]
AOAC (2012). Official methods of Analysis of Association of Official Analytical Chemists 19th edition. Washington D. C.
[12]
Nielson, S. S. (2010). Food analysis. (4thed). (S. S. Nielson, Ed.) Nee York, USA: Springer Science Business Media.
[13]
Bissessur, V., Goburdhun, D., and Ruggoo, A. (1999). Evaluation of atomic absorption and titrimetry for calcium determination spectrophotometry (ashing, non-ashing) in selected foods. Science and Technology Research Journal; 3: 115-128.
[14]
Taguchi, K., Fukusaki, E., and Bamba, T. (2014). Simultaneous analysis for water- and fat-soluble vitamins by a novel single chromatography technique unifying supercritical fluid chromatography and liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatograph; 1362: 270-277.
[15]
Onwuka, G., I. (2005). Food Analysis and Instrumentation Theory and Practice. Naphtali Print, Lagos, Nigeria: 81-90.
[16]
Pearson, D. (1979). The Chemical Analysis of foods. 8th ed. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburg.
[17]
David, L. W. (2010). HTMA mineral ratios, a brief discussion of their clinical importance. Trace Elements Newsletter; 21: 1-15.
[18]
Woldegiorgis A. Z., Abate D., Haki G. D., and Ziegler G. R. (2015). Major, minor and toxic minerals and anti‐nutrients composition in edible mushrooms collected from Ethiopia. Food Processing Technology; 6: 134–142.
[19]
Igwe, C. U., Ibegbulem, C. O., Nwaogu, L. A., Ujowundu, C. O. and Okwu, G. N. (2013). Calcium, zinc and phytate interrelationship in four lesser-known African seeds processed into food condiments. Journal of Advanced Chemistry; 4 (2): 288-292.
[20]
Ponka, R., Fokou, E., Kansci, G., et al. (2014). Recipes. Proximate and mineral composition of some traditional sauces consumed in the far North Region of Cameroon. International Food Research Journal; 21 (4): 1589-1596.
[21]
Kayode, O. A., Ozumba, S., Ojeniyi, D. O. et al. (2010). Micronutrient content of selected indigenous soups in Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition; 9 (10): 962-965.
[22]
Davidson, G. I., Ene-Obong, H. N. and Chinma, C. E. (2017). Variations in Nutrients composition of most commonly consumed cassava (Manihotesculenta) mixed dishes in South-Eastern Nigeria. Journal of Food Quality: 1-8.
[23]
White, D. L. and Collinson, A. (2013). Red meat, dietary heme iron and risk of type 2 diabetes: the involvement of advanced lipoxidation of endproduct. Advances in Nutrition; 4 (4): 403-411.
[24]
Sabitha, L., Ramachendram, N. K. R., and Panneerseram, K. (2011). Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic potential of AbelmoschusesculentusMonech in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Journal of Pharmacy and Bio Allied Sciences. 3 (3): 397-402.
[25]
Ukaegbu, P. O and Okebugwu, J. O. (2018). Chemical and sensory assessment of UjujuMyrianthusarboreus) leaf and soup. Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences; 39 (1): 50-58
[26]
Van Nielen, M., Feskens, E. J. M., Mensink, M., Slujis, I. (2018). Dietary Protein intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes in Europe: The EPIC-InterAct Case-Cohort study; 37 (7): 1854-1862.
[27]
Sluijs, I., Beulens, J. W., van der, A. D. L., Spijkerman, A. M., Gribbee, D. E and Van der Schouw, U. T. (2010). Dietary intake of total animal and vegetable protein and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) -NL Study. Diabetes Care; 33 (1): 43-48
[28]
Ke, Q., Chen, C., He, F., Ye, Y., Nai, X., Cai, L. and Xia, M. (2018). Association between dietary protein intake and Type 2 diabetes varies by dietary pattern. Diabetology Metabolic Syndrome; 10: 48-56.
[29]
Cani, P. P., Dowever, C., Delzenne, N. M (2004). Inulin-type fructans modulate gastrointestinal peptides involved in appetite regulation (glucagon-like peptide-1 and ghrelin) in rats. Britain Journal of Nutrition; 92: 521-6.
[30]
Caricilli, A. M and Saad, M. J. (2013). The role of gut microbiota on insulin resistance. Nutrients; 5 (3): 829-51.
[31]
Asinobi, C., Uzoagba, H., Mba-Anyadioha, A. and Nnodim, J. (2016). Glycemic index of some traditional fortified staple meals on the postprandial glucose response of Nigerian undergraduate students: an open-label study. Functional foods in Health and Disease: 6 (7): 414-424.
[32]
Amadi, Joy. A. C. and Asinobi, C. O. (2019). Glycemic index and load responses of indigenous vegetable sauces among healthy young female adults. Functional Foods in Health and Disease. In Press.
[33]
Garg, A. (2015). Nutritional recommendations for individuals with Diabetes. Endotex. South Dartmouth (MA): MDText. Com. Inc.
[34]
Asif, M. (2014). The prevention and control of type 2 diabetics by changing lifestyle and dietary pattern. Journal of Education and Health Promotion; 3: 1-9.
[35]
Eleazu, C. O. (2016). The Concept of low glycemic index and glycemic load foods as panacea for type 2 diabetes mellitus; prospects, challenges and solutions. African Health Science; 16 (2): 468-479.
[36]
Amadi, Joy A. C. (2017). Glycemic Index of three Cocoyam varieties consumed in Imo State, Nigeria. Journal of Dietitians Association of Nigeria; (8): 96-103.
[37]
Kouame, C. A., Kouassi, N. K., Coulibaly, A. et al. (2014). Glycemic index and glycemic load of selected staples based on rice, yam, and cassava commonly consumed in Cote d’Ivoire. Food and Nutrition Science; 5: 308-315.
[38]
Gommers, L. M., Hoenderop, J. G., Bindel, R. J. and de Baaij, J. H. (2016). Hypomagnesemia in type 2 diabetes: A vicious circle. Diabetes; 65 (1): 3-13.
[39]
Barbagallo, M. and Dominguez, L. J. (2015). Magnesium and type 2 Diabetes. World Journal of Diabetes; 6 (10): 1152 1162.
[40]
Song, M. K., Bischoff, D. S., Song, A. m., Uyemura, K. and Yamaguchi, D. T. (2017). Metabolic relationship between diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease affected by cyclo (His-Pro) plus zinc treatment. BiochimicaetBiophysciaActa Clinical; 7: 41-54.
[41]
Castello, R. B., Dwyer, J. T. and Bailey, R. L. (2016). Chromium supplementation for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: Limited evidence for effectiveness. Nutrition Reviews; 74 (9): 455-468.
[42]
Manson, P. (2007). Dietary supplements. Third edition. Pharmaceutical Press, London.
[43]
Adetuyi, F. O., Osagie, A. U., and Adekunle, A. T. (2011). Nutrient, antinutrient, mineral and bioavailability of okra Abelmoschusesculentus (L) moench. American Journal of Food and Nutrition; I: 49-54.
[44]
Lopez, P. M., Mora, P. G., Wysocka, W., Maiztegui, B., Alzugaray, M. E., Zoto, H. D., and Borelli, M. I. (2004). Quinolizldine alkaloids isolated from lupines species enhance insulin secretion. European Journal Pharmacology; 504: 139-142.
[45]
Frontela, C., Scarino, M. L., Ferruzza, S., Ros, G., and Martinez, C. (2009). Effect of dephytinization on bioavailability of iron, calcium and from infant cereals accessed in the Caco-2 cell model. World Journal Gastroenterology; 28; 1977-1984.
[46]
Hurrel, R. F., Reddy, M. B., Juillerat, M. A., and Cook, J. D. (2003). Degradation of phytic acid in cereal porridges improves iron absorption by human subjects. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; 77: 1213-1219.
[47]
Siegenberg, D., Baynes, R. D., Bothwell, T. H., Macfarlene, B. J., Lamparelli, R. D., Car, N. G., Macphail, P., Schmidt, U., Tal, A. and Mayet, F. (1991). Ascorbic acid prevents the dose-dependent inhibitory effects of polyphenols and phytates on non-hemeiron absorption. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; 53 (2): 537-554.
Browse journals by subject