Volume 5, Issue 3, September 2020, Page: 34-40
Prevalence and Presentation of Diabetes-Related Hypoglycemia Amongst Persons with Diabetes in a Tertiary Health Instition in Nigeria
Ohenhen Oluwatoyin Abisoye, Department of Medicine, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria
Uwameiye Oseribhor, Department of Medicine, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria
Received: Nov. 23, 2019;       Accepted: Jul. 22, 2020;       Published: Aug. 18, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijde.20200503.11      View  63      Downloads  22
Abstract
Background: Hypoglycaemia is the most common acute complication of Diabetes Mellitus and often treatment-limiting, serious adverse effect of intensive diabetes therapy. Although it is preventable, hypoglycaemic episodes, especially if severe or recurrent may result in significant psychosocial dysfunction and lower quality of life. Aim: To determine the prevalence, frequency and timing of diabetes-related hypoglycaemia amongst persons with diabetes mellitus. Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study involving patients attending the diabetes clinic and selected using systematic random sampling. An interviewer- administered questionnaire was used to obtain socio-demographic characteristics as well as experience of hypoglycaemia in the past 12months and severity graded. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 21.0, IBM SPSS Statistics, New York, USA Result: A total of 216 patients were recruited for the study. Eighty nine patients (41.2%) reported experiencing hypoglycaemia, out of which 46 (51.7%) occurred in the morning before breakfast and 16 (18.0%) experienced severe Hypoglycaemia. Skipped meal (58.4%) and overdose of GLA (31.5%) were the most common recognized causes of hypoglycaemia. Level 1 hypoglycaemia was the commonest grade of hypoglycaemia, while males and those on insulin alone had higher odds of having hypoglycaemia (P=0.059). Conclusion: The reported prevalence of hypoglycaemia amongst persons with diabetes mellitus within the last one year prior to the study was rather high which shows that hypoglycaemia is a common experience amongst type 2 diabetic undergoing management. Continuous patient education on the risks, causes, symptoms, and treatment of hypoglycaemia as well as self-monitoring of blood glucose is recommended for every person with diabetes at every health visits.
Keywords
Hypoglycaemia, Prevalence, Severity, Glucose Lowering Agent
To cite this article
Ohenhen Oluwatoyin Abisoye, Uwameiye Oseribhor, Prevalence and Presentation of Diabetes-Related Hypoglycemia Amongst Persons with Diabetes in a Tertiary Health Instition in Nigeria, International Journal of Diabetes and Endocrinology. Special Issue: Hypoglycemia in Diabetes. Vol. 5, No. 3, 2020, pp. 34-40. doi: 10.11648/j.ijde.20200503.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 9th edn. Brussels, Belgium: 2019. Available at: http://www.diabetesatlas.org.
[2]
Guariguata L, Whiting DR, Hambleton I, et al. Global estimates of diabetes prevalence for 2013 and projections for 2035. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2014; 103: 137–49.
[3]
Beran D, Yudkin JS. Diabetes care in sub-Saharan Africa. Lancet. 2006; 368: 1689–1695.
[4]
Mbanya JC, Motala AA, Sobngwi E, et al. Diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa. Lancet 2010; 375: 2254–2266.
[5]
Ogbera AO, Ekpebegh C. Diabetes mellitus in Nigeria: the past, present and future. World J Diabetes. 2014; 5: 905–911.
[6]
Andrew E. Uloko, Baba M. Musa, Mansur A. Ramalan, Ibrahim D. Gezawa, Fabian H. Puepet, Ayekame T. Uloko et al. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Diabetes Mellitus in Nigeria: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Diabetes Ther. 2018 Jun; 9 (3): 1307–1316.
[7]
Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Lancet. 1998; 352: 837-853.
[8]
The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. N Engl J Med. 1993; 329: 977-86.
[9]
American Diabetes Association Workgroup On Hypoglycemia. Defining and Reporting Hypoglycemia in Diabetes: A report from the American Diabetes Association Workgroup on Hypoglycemia. DIABETES CARE. 2005; 5: 1245-1249.
[10]
Adeloye D, Ige JO, Aderemi AV, Ngozi A, Emmanuel OA, Asa A, Gbolahan O. Estimating the prevalence, hospitalisation and mortality from type 2 diabetes mellitus in Nigeria: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2017; 7: 015424. doi: 10.1136/ bmjopen-2016-015424.
[11]
American Diabetes Association. “Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2019; 42: S1-S2.
[12]
Ademolu AB (2017) Role of Ademolus Classification of Hypoglycemia in Blood Glucose and Diabetes Mellitus Management. Gastroenterol Liver Clin Med. 2017; 1: 1 003.
[13]
Gabriel Uche Pascal Iloh, Agwu Nkwa Amadi. Epidemiology of hypoglycemia among ambulatory Type 2 diabetic patients in a primary care clinic of a tertiary hospital in Southeastern Nigeria. Journal of health research and reviews in developing countries. 2018; 5: 57-65.
[14]
Olamoyegun MA, Ayodele A O, Enikuomehin A C, Akinlade AT. Incidence and Determinants of Reported Hypoglycaemia among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Tertiary Health Institution in Nigeria. Journal of Diabetes Mellitus. 2020: 10; 51-63.
[15]
Tschöpe D, Bramlage P, Binz C, Krekler M, Deeg E, Gitt AK. Incidence and predictors of hypoglycaemia in type 2 diabetes – An analysis of the prospective DiaRegis registry. BMC Endocr Disord. 2012; 12: 23-30.
[16]
Vanishree Shriraam, Shriraam Mahadevan, M. Anitharani, Nalini Sirala Jagadeesh, Sreelekha Bhaskara Kurup, T. A. Vidya, and Krishna G. Seshadri. Reported hypoglycemia in Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: Prevalence and practices-a hospital-based study. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2017 Jan-Feb; 21 (1): 148–153.
[17]
Donna T. Detection, Prevention, and Treatment of Hypoglycemia in the Hospital Diabetes Spectrum. 2005; 18: (1) 39-44.
[18]
Adegbenga B Ademolu. “Analysis of Hypoglycemic Episodes in Diabetics in Africans Using Ademolus Classification of Hypoglycemia (ACH)”. Acta Scientific Medical Sciences. 2019: 138-145.
[19]
Schnell O, Alawi H, Battelino T, et al. Self-monitoring of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes: recent studies. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2013; 7 (2): 478-488.
[20]
Schnell O, Alawi H, Battelino T, Ceriello A, Diem P, Felton A, Grzeszczak W, Harno K, Kempler P, Satman I, Vergès B. Consensus statement on self-monitoring of blood glucose in diabetes: a European perspective. Diab Metab Heart. 2009; 18 (4): 285–9.
[21]
Peel E, Parry O, Douglas M, Lawton J. Blood glucose self-monitoring in non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study of patients' perspectives. Br J Gen Pract. 2004 Mar; 54 (500): 183-8.
[22]
Miller CD, Phillips LS, Ziemer DC, Gallina DL, Cook CB, El-Kebbi IM. Hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med. 2001; 161: 1653–1659.
[23]
Sun-Young P, Eun Jin J, Ju-Young S, Min-Young L, Donguk K, Eui-Kyung L. Prevalence and Predictors of Hypoglycemia in South Korea.. American Journal of Managed Care. 2018; 24 (6): 278-286.
Browse journals by subject